# Search in Rotated Sorted Array in TypeScript

function search(nums: number[], target: number): number {
// Initialize the left and right pointers.
// 'left' starts from the beginning of the array, and 'right' starts from the end.
let left = 0;
let right = nums.length - 1;

// The while loop continues as long as 'left' does not surpass 'right'.
// This ensures that the search space is valid.
while (left <= right) {
// Calculate the middle index of the current search space.
// This is done by averaging 'left' and 'right', effectively dividing the search space in half.
let mid = Math.floor((left + right) / 2);

// Check if the middle element is the target. If so, return its index.
if (nums[mid] === target) {
return mid;
}

// Determine if the left half of the array is sorted.
// A sorted half will have its start less than or equal to its middle.
if (nums[left] <= nums[mid]) {
// If the target is within the range of the sorted left half,
// discard the right half by moving 'right' just before 'mid'.
if (target >= nums[left] && target < nums[mid]) {
right = mid - 1;
}
// Otherwise, discard the left half by moving 'left' just after 'mid'.
else {
left = mid + 1;
}
}
// If the left half is not sorted, then the right half must be sorted.
else {
// If the target is within the range of the sorted right half,
// discard the left half by moving 'left' just after 'mid'.
if (target > nums[mid] && target <= nums[right]) {
left = mid + 1;
}
// Otherwise, discard the right half by moving 'right' just before 'mid'.
else {
right = mid - 1;
}
}
}

// If the target is not found in the array, return -1.
return -1;
}