### 1. Components of a Linked List:

• Node: The fundamental part of a linked list. Each node contains:

• Data: The value stored in the node.
• Next: A pointer/reference to the next node in the list.

• Tail: The last node in a linked list, which points to null, indicating the end of the list.

### 2. Types of Linked Lists:

• Singly Linked List: Each node points only to the next node. The last node points to null.
• Doubly Linked List: Each node has two links: one to the next node and another to the previous node. The first node’s previous link and the last node’s next link point to null.
• Circular Linked List: Similar to the singly linked list, but the last node points to the head, forming a circle.

### 3. Operations on Linked Lists:

• Insertion:

• At the end (tail).
• After/before a given node.
• Deletion:

• Remove the first node.
• Remove the last node.
• Remove a specific node.
• Traversal: Access each element in the sequence.

• Searching: Find a node with a given value.

• Updating: Change the value of an existing node.

• Dynamic Size: Unlike arrays, linked lists don’t have a fixed size. They can grow and shrink during runtime.
• Ease of Insertion/Deletion: Adding or removing elements doesn’t require shifting other elements, unlike in arrays.

• Memory Usage: Each node requires extra memory for the reference/pointer.
• Traversal: Direct access is not possible; you have to access nodes sequentially starting from the first node (head).
• Reverse Traversing: In singly linked lists, it’s not possible to traverse backward. Doubly linked lists solve this problem but use more memory per node.

### 6. Complexity Analysis:

• Time Complexity:

• Access: O(n)
• Insertion: O(1) if you're at the position, otherwise O(n)
• Deletion: O(1) with the node, otherwise O(n)
• Space Complexity: O(n)

### 7. Applications of Linked Lists:

• Implementing stacks and queues.
• Dynamic memory allocation.
• Implementing other data structures like graphs and trees.

### 8. Singly Linked List Example in Python:

class Node:
def __init__(self, data):
self.data = data
self.next = None

def __init__(self):

def append(self, data):